A handy enhancement will be arriving in Winter '14 that makes working with Scheduled Jobs much cleaner. The update will allow you to query for the Name and Type of CronTrigger records.
In v28.0, you were limited to CreatedById, CreatedDate, CronExpression, EndTime, Id, LastModifiedById, NextFireTime, OwnerId, PreviousFireTime, StartTime, State, TimesTriggered, andTimeZoneSidKey. Unfortunately, no way to query for the job name or type.
Winter '14's v29.0 brings with it a new object called "CronJobDetail" and a few fields (Id, JobType, and Name). CronTrigger relates to a CronJobDetail through its CronJobDetailId field.
Sound semi-familiar? Take a look at our earlier post, Syncing Salesforce Changes to an External System with Future/Schedule Architecture. In this post, we schedule an Apex job to handle our future/schedule processing and create a small side object called CronJob__c. We stored the ID of the scheduled CronTrigger so that we could remove the job afterwards. This object is no longer necessary now that we can query for our CronTriggers by name.
The types that are provided back are numeric - here is what each value means:
0 - Data Export
3 - Dashboard Refresh
4 - Analytic Snapshot
7 - Scheduled Apex
8 - Report Run
9 - Batch Job